N. /. Ch-afm4 and N. /. C3s-afm4, AFm4-a-66 1.5 0.0 0.0 N/A C3S-AFm4-a-66-1190, C3S-sand(e1)

A. Table, Ratios CaO Al 2 O 3 /SiO 2 of various material before testing were obtained by methods SEM, p.27

P. Aõ, Cements of yesterday and today Concrete of tomorrow, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.30, p.13491359, 2000.

J. Auger, Mise au point et développement d'un procédé d'aide à la déconstruction des ouvrages en béton armé, 2009.

E. Cachan, Comportement des materiaux cimentaires: Actions des sulfates et de la température, pp.49-52

B. Bary, Simplied coupled chemo-mechanical modeling of cement pastes behavior subjected to combined leaching and external sulfate attack, International Journal Numerical Analytical Methods Geomechanics, vol.32, pp.17911816-17911861, 2008.

B. Bary, N. Leterrier, E. Deville, L. Bescop, and P. , Coupled chemo-transport-mechanical modelling and numerical simulation of external sulfate attack in mortar, Cement and Concrete Composites, pp.7083-7127, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2013.12.010

M. Basista, Micromechanical modelling of sulphate corrosion in concrete : inuence of ettringite forming reaction, Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, vol.35, issue.1, pp.2952-2997, 2008.

G. F. Becker and A. L. Day, Note on the Linear Force of Growing Crystals, The Journal of Geology, vol.24, issue.4, pp.313333-60, 1916.
DOI : 10.1086/622342

F. Bellmann, B. Möser, and J. Stark, Inuence of sulfate solution concentration on the formation of gypsum in sulfate resistance test specimen, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.36, p.358363, 2006.

J. Bizzozero, Hydration and dimensional stability of calcium aluminate cement based systems, pp.45-148, 2014.

J. Bizzozero, C. Gosselin, and K. L. Scrivener, Expansion mechanisms in calcium aluminate and sulfoaluminate systems with calcium sulfate, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.56, pp.45-148, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2013.11.011

H. Bo, Assessment of material use in relation to climate in historical buildings. Building and environment, p.970978, 2007.

D. Bonen and M. D. Cohen, Magnesium sulfate attack on portland cement paset-II. Chemical and mineralogical analyses, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.22, p.707718, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0008-8846(92)90147-n

D. Bonen and M. D. Cohen, Magnesium sulfate attack on portland cement paste-I. Microstructural analysis, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.22, issue.1, p.169180, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0008-8846(92)90147-N

D. Bonen and S. Sarkar, Replacement of Portlandite by gypsum in the interfacial zone and cracking related to crystallization pressure Cement-based materials: present, future, and environmental aspects, In Ceramics Transtractions, vol.37, pp.4960-5007, 1993.

H. Bouzabata, S. Multon, A. Sellier, and H. Houari, Eects of restraint on expansion due to delayed ettringite formation, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.42, issue.7, pp.10241031-53, 2012.

E. Bowitz and K. Ibenholt, Economic impacts of cultural heritage ??? Research and perspectives, Journal of Cultural Heritage, vol.10, issue.1, p.18, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.culher.2008.09.002

W. Bruhms and W. Meckelenburg, Uber die sogenannte kristallisationskraft . 6. jahresbericht d. Niedersachischen geologischen vereins, pp.92115-60, 1913.

E. Candlot, Ciments et chaux hydrauliques: fabricationpropriétés emploi, Librairie polytechnique baudry et cie, 1898.

C. Cardell, F. Delalieux, K. Roumpopoulos, A. Moropoulou, F. Auger et al., Salt-induced decay in calcareous stone monuments and buildings in a marine environment in SW France, Construction and Building Materials, p.165179, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0950-0618(02)00104-6

F. Caruso and R. J. Flatt, Further steps towards the solution of Correns ' dilemma, SWBSS 2014 Third International Conference on Salt Weathering of Buildings and Stone Sculptures, number October, p.62, 2014.

F. Caruso and R. J. Flatt, Measuring crystallization pressure: can Correns's experiments be repeated, International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, pp.17-61, 2014.

A. Chabrelie, Mechanisms of Degradation of Concrete by External Sulfate Ions under Laboratory and Field Conditions, pp.39-42, 2010.

G. Chanvillard and R. Barbarulo, Stress from conned crystallization occuring by internal phase change: Application to the case of delayed ettringite formation in hardened cement paste. Mechanics and Physics of Porous Solids (MPPS) -A tribute to Prof, p.7193, 2011.

-. Ca, A coupled nanoindentation/SEM-EDS study on low water/cement ratio portland cement paste: Evidence for C

C. Ouyang, W. F. Chang, and A. N. , Sulfate Attack Resistance of Portland Cement Mixtures Containing Phosphogypsum, Special Publication, vol.100, 1987.

J. Chwast, J. Todorovi¢, H. Janssen, and J. And-elsen, Gypsum eorescence on clay brick masonry: eld survey and literature study, Construction and Building Materials, vol.85, p.5764, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.02.094

C. W. Correns, Growth and dissolution of crystals under linear pressure, Discussions of the Faraday Society, vol.5, pp.5267-54, 1949.
DOI : 10.1039/df9490500267

C. W. Correns and W. Steinborn, Experimente zur Messung und Erklärung der sogenannten Kristallisationskraft, Z Krist (A), vol.101, issue.60, pp.117133-54, 1939.
DOI : 10.1524/zkri.1939.101.1.117

O. Coussy, Deformation and stress from in-pore drying-induced crystallization of salt, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol.54, issue.8, pp.15171547-54, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jmps.2006.03.002

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00586271

O. Coussy, Mechanics and physics of porous solids, pp.54-60, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/9780470710388

O. Coussy and P. J. Monteiro, Unsaturated poroelasticity for crystallization in pores, Computers and Geotechnics, vol.34, issue.4, pp.279290-53, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.compgeo.2007.02.007

O. Coussy and P. J. Monteiro, Poroelastic model for concrete exposed to freezing temperatures, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.38, issue.1, pp.40-48, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.06.006

N. J. Cramond, Examination of mortar bars containing varying percentages of coarsely crystalline gypsum as aggregate, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.14, issue.2, p.225230, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0008-8846(84)90108-X

N. J. Cramond, Quantitative X-ray diraction analysis of ettringite, thaumasite and gypsum in concretes and mortars, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.15, p.431441, 1985.

D. Damidot and F. Glasser, Thermodynamic investigation of the CaO???Al2O3???CaSO4???K2O???H2O system at 25??C, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.23, issue.5, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0008-8846(93)90180-H

D. Damidot, B. Lothenbach, D. Herfort, and F. Glasser, Thermodynamics and cement science, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.41, issue.7, pp.679695-679744, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2011.03.018

H. Derluyn, P. Moonen, C. , and J. , Deformation and damage due to drying-induced salt crystallization in porous limestone, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol.63, pp.242255-65, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jmps.2013.09.005

J. Désarnaud, Mécanisme de Croissance et de dissolution de cristaux de KCl sous Charge : Apport dans la connaissance des mécanismes d'altération des pierres par les sels, pp.61-67, 2009.

E. Doehne, Salt weathering: a selective review, Geological Society, London, Special Publications, vol.205, issue.1, pp.5164-57, 2002.
DOI : 10.1144/GSL.SP.2002.205.01.05

E. Drouet and . Ens-cachan, Impact de la température sur la carbonatation des matériaux cimentaires : prise en compte des transferts hydriques, 2011.

R. M. Espinosa-marzal, L. Franke, and G. Deckelmann, Model for the mechanical stress due to the salt crystallization in porous materials, Construction and Building Materials, vol.22, issue.7, pp.13501367-54, 2008.

R. M. Espinosa-marzal, A. Hamilton, M. Mcnall, K. Whitaker, and G. Scherer, The chemomechanics of crystallization during rewetting of limestone impregnated with sodium sulfate, Journal of Materials Research, vol.16, issue.12, pp.14721481-55, 2011.
DOI : 10.1557/jmr.2011.137

R. M. Espinosa-marzal and G. Scherer, Crystallization of sodium sulfate salts in limestone, Environmental Geology, vol.4, issue.3-4, pp.3-4605621, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s00254-008-1441-7

P. Feng, E. J. Garboczi, C. Miao, and J. W. Bullard, Microstructural origins of cement paste degradation by external sulfate attack, Construction and Building Materials, vol.96, pp.391403-391448, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2015.07.186

R. J. Flatt, Hydration pressure: a bad case of crystallization pressure, SALTeXPERT Workshop, p.66, 2002.

R. J. Flatt, Salt damage in porous materials: how high supersaturations are generated, Journal of Crystal Growth, vol.242, issue.3-4, pp.435454-435499, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-0248(02)01429-X

R. J. Flatt, F. Caruso, A. Maria, A. Sanchez, and G. W. Scherer, Chemomechanics of salt damage in stone, Nature Communications, vol.5, pp.15-55, 2014.

R. J. Flatt and G. W. Scherer, Thermodynamics of crystallization stresses in DEF, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.38, issue.3, pp.325336-325385, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.10.002

R. J. Flatt, G. W. Scherer, and J. W. Bullard, Cement and Concrete Research Why alite stops hydrating below 80 % relative humidity, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.41, issue.9, p.987992, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2011.06.001

R. J. Flatt, M. Steiger, and G. W. Scherer, A commented translation of the paper by C.W. Correns and W. Steinborn on crystallization pressure, Environmental Geology, vol.88, issue.4, pp.187203-60, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s00254-006-0509-5

E. J. Garboczi and D. P. Bentz, The Microstructure of Portland Cement-Based Materials: Computer Simulation and Percolation Theory, Material research Society Symposium Proceedings, p.89100, 1998.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevE.52.819

E. M. Gartner, Cement and Concrete Research Cohesion and expansion in polycrystalline solids formed by hydration reactions The case of gypsum plasters, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.39, issue.4, p.289295, 2009.

J. T. Germaine, Measurements for Engineers, pp.82-88, 2009.

L. Germinario, M. Claudio, and M. Lara, Euganean trachyte in the monumental built environment: archaeometric discriminating criteria and weathering analysis, 2014.

R. S. Gollop and H. F. Taylor, Microstructural and microanalytical studies of sulfate attack, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.22, issue.44, pp.10271038-10271078, 1992.

R. S. Gollop and H. F. Taylor, Microstructural and microanalytical studies of sulfate attack III. Sulfate-resisting portland cement: Reactions with sodium and magnesium sulfate solutions, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.25, issue.7, p.15811590, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0008-8846(95)00151-2

R. S. Gollop and H. F. Taylor, Microstructural and microanalytical studies of sulfate attack. V. Comparison of dierent slag blends, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.26, issue.7, pp.10291044-10291083, 1996.

M. A. Gonzalez and E. F. Irassar, ETTRINGITE FORMATION IN LOW C3A PORTLAND CEMENT EXPOSED TO SODIUM SULFATE SOLUTION, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.27, issue.7, p.10611072, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0008-8846(97)00093-8

S. Goto and D. M. Roy, The eect of w/c ratio and curing temperature on the permeability of hardened cement paste, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.11, issue.1, p.575579, 1981.

A. Goudie and H. Viles, Salt weathering hazards, pp.54-66, 1997.

S. Gupta, Sodium chloride crystallization in drying porous media : inuence of inhibitor, 2013.

L. Hjorth, Development and application of high-density cementbased materials, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol.310, pp.167173-167214, 1983.

E. Hopital, Aluminium and alkali uptake in calcium silicate hydrates ( C -S -H ), pp.96-100, 2014.

B. Huet, Comportement à la corrosion des armatures dans un béton carbonaté . Inuence de la chimie de la solution interstitielle et d 'une barrière de transport, 2005.

E. F. Irassar, V. L. Bonavetti, and M. Gonza, Microstructural study of sulfate attack on ordinary and limestone Portland cements at ambient temperature, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.33, issue.1, pp.3141-3184, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0008-8846(02)00914-6

E. F. Irassar, D. Maio, and A. , Sulfate attack on concrete with mineral admixtures, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.26, issue.1, p.113123, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0008-8846(95)00195-6

H. M. Jennings, Renements to colloid model of C-S-H in cement: CM-II, 2008.

M. Jödecke, J. Xia, A. Pérez-salado-kamps, and G. Maurer, Inuence of (phenol and sodium sulfate) on the solubility of carbon dioxide in water, 2015.

H. Kopp, Uber die bildung von krystallen mit kernen,. Ann, Chem. Pharm, vol.44, pp.124-60, 1855.

P. C. Kreijger, Environmental factors aecting building an its durability, Séminaire Durabilité des bétons et des pierres, 1983.

T. Kretz, . Technical, B. Centre-for-roads, and T. , Large road bridges management -Special features Implementation of risk analysis in ordinary bridge management, 2011.

W. Kunther, Investigation of sulfate attack by experimental and thermodynamic means, p.44, 2012.

W. Kunther, B. Lothenbach, and K. L. Scrivener, On the relevance of volume increase for the length changes of mortar bars in sulfate solutions, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.46, issue.67, pp.2329-62, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2013.01.002

W. Kunther, B. Lothenbach, and J. Skibsted, Inuence of the Ca/Si ratio of the CSH phase on the interaction with sulfate ions and its impact on the ettringite crystallization pressure, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.69, issue.146, pp.3749-134, 2015.

H. Lafuma, Théorie de l'expansion des liants hydrauliques. Revue des matériaux de construction et de travaux publics, pp.39-45, 1929.

M. Lavalle, Recherches sur la formation de cristaux à la température ordinaire, Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci, vol.34, pp.493495-60, 1853.

C. D. Lawrence, Mortar expansions due to delayed ettringite formation . Eects of curing period and temperature, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.25, issue.4, p.903914, 1995.

L. Bescop, P. Solet, and C. , External sulphate attack by ground water. Experimental study on CEM I cement pastes. Revue Européenne de Génie Civil, pp.11271145-11271184, 2006.

L. Chatelier and H. , Recherches expérimentales sur la constitution des mortiers hydrauliques, 1887.

B. Lecampion, Stress-induced crystal preferred orientation in the poromechanics of in-pore crystallization, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol.58, issue.10, p.17011715, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jmps.2010.07.001

J. V. Lee, Thermodynamic and mathematical concepts of CHESS, 1998.

B. Lothenbach, B. Bary, L. Bescop, P. Schmidt, T. Leterrier et al., Sulfate ingress in Portland cement, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.40, issue.8, pp.12111225-12111265, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2010.04.004

B. Lothenbach and F. Winnefeld, Thermodynamic modelling of the hydration of Portland cement, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.36, issue.2, pp.209-226, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2005.03.001

Y. Maltais, E. Samson, and J. Marchand, Predicting the durability of Portland cement systems in aggressive environments???Laboratory validation, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.34, issue.9, p.15791589, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2004.03.029

S. Mantellato, M. Palacios, and R. J. Flatt, Cement and Concrete Research Reliable speci c surface area measurements on anhydrous cements, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.67, issue.191, pp.286291-168, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2014.10.009

J. Marchand, I. Odler, and J. P. Skalny, Case histories, Sulfate attack on Concrete, 2002.

J. Marchand, I. Odler, and J. P. Skalny, Introduction, Sulfate attack on Concrete, 2002.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01294956

J. Marchand and I. Odler, Assessment of cement and concrete performance under sulfate attack, Sulfate attack on Concrete, 2002.

D. Massiot, F. Fayon, M. Capron, I. King, L. Calvé et al., Modelling one- and two-dimensional solid-state NMR spectra, Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, vol.320, issue.1, p.7076, 2002.
DOI : 10.1002/mrc.984

B. Mather, Eects of sea water on concrete, Highway Research Record, vol.113, pp.23-39, 1964.

B. Mather, Discussion of the process of sulfate attack on cement mortars. Advanced cement based materials, pp.109110-109156, 1996.

T. Matschei, Thermodynamics of Cement Hydration, 2007.

T. Matschei, B. Lothenbach, and F. P. Glasser, Thermodynamic properties of Portland cement hydrates in the system CaOAl2O3SiO2CaSO4CaCO3H2O, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.37, issue.10, p.13791410, 2007.

P. Mehta, Mechanism of sulfate attack on portland cement concrete ??? Another look, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.13, issue.3, pp.401406-401451, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0008-8846(83)90040-6

P. Mehta, Sulfate attack on concreteA critical review, p.47, 1992.

P. Mehta, D. Pirtz, and M. Polivka, Proprieties of alite cements, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.9, pp.439450-439497, 1979.

J. Meijer and G. Van-rosmalen, Solubilities and supersaturations of calcium sulfate and its hydrates in seawater, Desalination, vol.51, issue.3, pp.255305-255345, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0011-9164(84)87002-2

S. Meulenyzer and J. J. Chen, Spectral-spatial image processing strategies for classifying multispectral SEM-EDS X-Ray maps of cementitious materials, 14th Euroseminar on Microscopy Applied to Building Materials, number JUNE, p.95, 2013.

M. Meybeck, Chemical characteristics of rivers. Fresh surface water, I(iii), 2003.

L. Michaux, Géochimie et migration en milieu granitique, interaction avec les ouvrages de stockage. Rôle et évolution des matériaux argileux de barrières ou-vragées, p.56, 1994.

A. E. Moore and H. F. Taylor, Crystal structure of ettringite, Acta Crystal, p.45, 1970.

H. Mortensen, Die Salzsprengung und ihre bedeutung für die regionalklimatische gliederung der wüsten. Petermanns Geographissche Mittheilungen , 5-6:130135, pp.60-66, 1933.

W. Müllauer, R. E. Beddoe, H. , and D. , Sulfate attack expansion mechanisms, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.52, issue.49, pp.208215-208260, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2013.07.005

G. Novak and A. Colville, Eorescent mineral assemblages associated with cracked and degraded residential concrete foundations in Southern California, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.19, issue.c, p.16, 1989.

V. R. Ouhadi and R. N. Yong, Ettringite formation and behaviour in clayey soils, Applied Clay Science, vol.42, issue.1-2, p.258265, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.clay.2008.01.009

C. Ouyang, A. Nanni, C. , and W. F. , Internal and external sources of sulfate ions in portland cement mortar: two types of chemical attack, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.18, issue.5, pp.699709-699749, 1988.
DOI : 10.1016/0008-8846(88)90092-0

S. Parnell and S. Oldeld, The Routledge handbook on cities of the global south, 2014.

V. Parsegian, Hydration forces: Observations, explanations, expectations , questions. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, p.60, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cocis.2011.06.010

X. Ping and J. J. Beaudoin, Mechanism of sulfate expansion I. Thermodynamic Principle of Crystallization Pressure, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.22, issue.1, pp.631640-631689, 1992.

X. Ping and J. J. Beaudoin, Mechanism of sulfate expansion II. Validation of thermodynamic theory, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.22, issue.49, pp.845854-845895, 1992.

M. Hysteresis and . Porosity, Modeling Water Sorption and Shrinkage in Cement Paste, Physical Review Applied, vol.3, p.64009

C. Plowman and J. G. Cabrera, The use of fly ash to improve the sulphate resistance of concrete, Waste Management, vol.16, issue.1-3, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/S0956-053X(96)00055-4

M. Polivka, Factors inuencing expansion of expansive cement concretes . ACI SP-38, pp.239250-60, 1973.

S. Poulsen, H. J. Jakobsen, and J. Skibsted, Methodologies for measuring the degree of reaction in Portland Cement blends with supplementary cementitious materials by 27Al and 29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, Proc., 7th IBAUSIL Internationale Baustoagung, pp.177-188, 2009.

T. C. Powers, A Working Hypothesis for Further Studies of Frost Resistance of Concrete, Journal Proceedings-American Concrete Institute, pp.245-53, 1945.

T. C. Powers, Structure and Physical Properties of Hardened Portland Cement Paste, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.71, issue.11, 1958.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1151-2916.1958.tb13494.x

A. Ramon and E. Alonso, Crystal growth under bridge foundations, International Workshop of Young Doctor in Geomechanics, number 61, p.6166, 2012.

B. Rasheeduzzafar and S. N. Abduljauwad, Magnesium???Sodium Sulfate Attack in Plain and Blended Cements, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, vol.6, issue.2, p.201222, 1994.
DOI : 10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(1994)6:2(201)

T. J. Reading, Physical Aspects of Sodium Sulfate Attack on Concrete, Special Publication, p.77, 1982.

C. Reed, Soggy soil sours Egyptian sandstone, Geotimes, vol.47, issue.9, p.2829, 2002.

L. A. Rijniers, H. P. Huinink, L. Pel, and K. Kopinga, Salt crystallization as damage mechanism in masonry, International Brick and Block Masonry Coference, pp.16-65, 2004.

L. A. Rijniers, H. P. Huinink, L. Pel, and K. Kopinga, Experimental Evidence of Crystallization Pressure inside Porous Media, Physical Review Letters, vol.94, issue.7, pp.755032326-63, 2005.
DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.94.075503

C. Rodriguez-navarro, Salt weathering: influence of evaporation rate, supersaturation and crystallization pattern, Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, vol.97, issue.6, pp.54-66, 1999.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9837(199903)24:3<191::AID-ESP942>3.0.CO;2-G

C. Rodriguez-navarro and E. Doehne, The role of, 1998.

C. Rodriguez-navarro, E. Doehne, and E. Sebastian, How does sodium sulfate crystallize? Implications for the decay and testing of building materials, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.30, issue.10, p.15271534, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0008-8846(00)00381-1

J. E. Rossen, Stability of C-A-S-H in pastes of alite and cement blended with supplementary cementitious materials. Laboratory of construction material, pp.6294-96, 2014.

S. Roy and . M. Fouillac, Uncertainties related to sampling and their impact on the chemical analysis of groundwater, TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, vol.23, issue.3, pp.185193-56, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0165-9936(04)00309-7

E. Rozière, . Loukili, R. Hachem, and F. Grondin, Durability of concrete exposed to leaching and external sulphate attacks, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.39, issue.12, p.11881198, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2009.07.021

B. G. Rzonca, R. M. Pride, C. , and D. , Concrete deterioration , east losangeles county area : case study, Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities, vol.4, issue.1, p.2429, 1990.
DOI : 10.1061/(asce)0887-3828(1990)4:1(24)

T. A. Saidov, Sodium sulfate heptahydrate in weathering phenomena of porous materials, 2012.

T. Saidov, L. Pel, and K. Kopinga, Crystallization Pressure of Sodium Sulfate Heptahydrate, Crystal Growth & Design, vol.15, issue.5, p.20872093, 2015.
DOI : 10.1021/cg501537h

E. Salome and A. Sigurdsson, Chemical composition of precipitation and river water in southern Iceland : eects of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruptions and geothermal power plants, Procedia Earth and Planetary Science, vol.10, p.358364, 2014.

G. W. Scherer, Freezing gels, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, vol.155, issue.1, pp.125-53, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-3093(93)90467-C

G. W. Scherer, Crystallization in pores, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.29, issue.8, p.13471358, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0008-8846(99)00002-2

G. W. Scherer, Stress from crystallization of salt, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.34, issue.9, pp.16131624-146, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2003.12.034

T. Schmidt, Sulfate attack and the Role of Internal carbonate on the formatIon of thaumasite, pp.41-49, 2007.

T. Schmidt, B. Lothenbach, M. Romer, J. Neuenschwander, and K. Scrivener, Physical and microstructural aspects of sulfate attack on ordinary and limestone blended Portland cements, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.39, issue.12, pp.11111121-11111165, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2009.08.005

T. Schmidt, B. Lothenbach, M. Romer, K. Scrivener, D. Rentsch et al., A thermodynamic and experimental study of the conditions of thaumasite formation, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.38, issue.3, p.337349, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cemconres.2007.11.003

K. Scrivener, Backscattered electron imaging of cementitious microstructures: Understanding and quantication. Cement and Concrete Composites, p.935945, 2004.

K. Scrivener, Expansive degradation mechanisms in concrete: linking chemical reactions with mechanical consequences, W(H)YDOC 2012, pp.43-155, 2012.

K. Scrivener and A. Campas, Calcium aluminate cements Advanced concrete technology: Constituent materials, pp.12-41, 2003.

R. F. Sekerka and J. W. Cahn, Solidliquid equilibrium for nonhydrostatic stress, Acta Materialia, vol.52, issue.6, p.16631668, 2004.

H. Siedel and H. Leisen, Salt load and deterioration of sandstone at temple of Angkor Wat, Cambodia, International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, p.267274, 2008.

J. Skibsted, Hydration kinetics for the alite, belite, and calcium aluminate phase in Portland Cements from 27 Al and 29 Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, 10th_ICCC, 1997.

J. Skibsted, E. Henderson, and H. Jakobsen, Characterization of calcium aluminate phases in cements by aluminum-27 MAS NMR spectroscopy, Inorganic Chemistry, vol.32, issue.6, p.10131027, 1993.
DOI : 10.1021/ic00058a043

M. Steiger, Crystal growth in porous materials???I: The crystallization pressure of large crystals, Journal of Crystal Growth, vol.282, issue.3-4, pp.455-469, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2005.05.007

M. Steiger, Crystal growth in porous materialsII: Inuence of crystal size on the crystallization pressure, Journal of Crystal Growth, vol.282, issue.63, pp.470481-470504, 2005.

S. Taber, The growth of crystals under external pressure, American Journal of Science, vol.4, issue.246, pp.532556-532579, 1916.
DOI : 10.2475/ajs.s4-41.246.532

S. Taber, Pressure phenomena accompanying the growth of crystals, Geology, vol.3, issue.4, pp.297302-60, 1917.

H. F. Taylor, Ettringite in cement paste and concrete, Int. Rilem Conf., Concrete: from material to structure, p.5576, 1996.

H. F. Taylor, Cement chemistry, pp.40-67, 1998.
DOI : 10.1680/cc.25929

H. F. Taylor, C. Famy, and K. Scrivener, Delayed ettringite formation, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.31, issue.5, pp.683693-52, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0008-8846(01)00466-5

T. Thorvaldson, Chemical aspects of the durability of cement products, Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on the Chemistry of Cement, Cement and Concrete Association, pp.436-483, 1954.

B. Tian and M. D. Cohen, Does gypsum formation during sulfate attack on concrete lead to expansion? Cement and Concrete Research, pp.117123-117171, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/s0008-8846(99)00211-2

J. M. Tulliani, L. Montanaro, A. Negro, and M. Collepardi, Sulfate attack of concrete building foundations induced by sewage waters, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.32, issue.6, p.843849, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0008-8846(01)00752-9

F. J. Ulm, G. Constantinides, and F. H. Heukamp, Is concrete a poromechanics materials?-A multiscale investigation of poroelastic properties, Materials and Structures, vol.37, p.4358, 2004.

J. Wakim, Inuence des solutions aqueuses sur le comportement des roches argileuses, p.56, 2006.

J. G. Wang, Sulfate attack on hardened cement paste, Cement and Concrete Research, vol.24, issue.4, pp.735742-735789, 1994.
DOI : 10.1016/0008-8846(94)90199-6

H. Wellman and A. Wilson, Salt Weathering, a Neglected Geological Erosive Agent in Coastal and Arid Environments, Nature, vol.11, issue.4976, p.10971098, 1965.
DOI : 10.1038/2051097a0

H. Wellman and A. Wilson, Salt weathering or fretting. The Encyclopedia of Geomorphology, 1968.
DOI : 10.1007/3-540-31060-6_321